Bio-Equivalence : Module 4


Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are for consistency in the process to be performed. The procedures is written in a format that is easy to follow and reduces the chance of errors. By framing SOPs there is chances to reduce the possibility of human error and to provide guidelines for employees to follow and ensure compliance to regulatory requirements.

Standard Operating Procedures define the roles and responsibilities and levels of authority of each person on the clinical research team. It defines the educational requirements, the training formats, and the standards of which the site will perform by.
SOPs should provide guidance in a way that anyone placed in that position with knowledge of the position should be able to follow the SOP step by step to complete the job duties and thereby following the protocol as well.

It is very difficult to make a unanimous view on number and type of SOPs but below is a basic list as per WHO guideline on SOPs for bioequivalence studies.

1. Conduct of bioequivalence (BE) study

2. Archiving and retrieval of documents related to BE study

3. Quality assurance of the BE study; audits of clinical and bioanalytical part of the study and the study report

4. Study files

5. Preparation and review of the protocol for the study

6. Amendment to the protocol for the study

7. Protocol deviations/violation recording and reporting

8. Sponsor/CRO quality assurance agreement in conducting the BE study

9. Study approval process by ethical committee

10. Bioavailability (BA)/BE report

11. Study report

12. Written informed consent

13. Obtaining written informed consent for screening from study volunteers

14. Allotment of identification numbers to volunteers at various stages in BE study

15. Investigator’s brochure (IB)

16. Case-report form (CRF)

17. Preparation of CRF, review and completion

18. Data collection and CRF completion

19. Adverse/serious adverse event monitoring, recording and reporting

20. Organization chart of the study

21. Training of the personnel

22. Responsibilities of the members of the research team

23. Monitoring of the study by the sponsor

24. Conduct of pre-study meeting

25. Study start-up

26. Subject management

27. SOP on mobilization of individuals for registration into volunteer bank

28. Eligibility criteria for registration and registration of individuals into volunteer bank

29. Handling of subject withdrawal

30. Allotment of identification numbers to volunteers at various stages in biostudy

31. Screening of enrolled volunteers for the study

32. Collection of urine samples of subjects for detection of drugs of abuse and transportation of samples to pathology laboratory

33. Custodian duties

34. Payments to research subjects for BA/BE studies

35. Procedures for entry into and exit from clinical unit

36. Handling of subject check-in and check-out

37. Housekeeping at clinical unit

38. Planning, preparation, evaluation and service of standardized meals for bio-studies.

39. Distribution of meals to study subjects

40. Operation and maintenance of nurse calling system

41. Administration of oral solid dosage forms of the drug to human subjects during BA/BE study.

42. Cannulation of study subjects

43. Collection of blood samples from study subjects

44. System for number of bio-samples

45. Recording of vital signs of subjects

46. Operation and verification of fire alarm system

47. Oxygen administration to subject from medical oxygen cylinder

48. Emergency care of subjects during BA/BE study

49. Availability of ambulance during BA/BE study

50. Centrifugation and separation of blood samples

51. Storage of plasma/serum samples

52. Segregation of bio-samples

53. Transfer of plasma/serum samples to bioanalytical laboratory

54. Procedures for washing glassware

55. Recording temperature and relative humidity of rooms

56. Instruction on operation and maintenance procedures for all the equipment in the clinical unit

57. Numbering the equipment and log books for use in the clinical unit

58. Control of access to pharmacy

59. Pharmacy area requirements

60. Authorization related to drug storage, dispensing and retrieval from storage for BE study

61. Study drug receipt, return and accountability documentation

62. Study drug receipt and return procedures

63. Storage of drugs in the pharmacy

64. Line clearance before and after dispensing

65. Documentation of line clearance and dispensing; packaging records and release of dispensed drugs

66. Retention of samples of study drugs

67. Disposal of archived study drugs

68. Disposal of biological materials

69. Procedures for bioanalytical laboratory (SOPs for the different equipment, analytical methods, reagent preparation)

70. Out-of-specification (OOS) situation in the laboratory

71. Acceptance criteria for analytical runs: acceptance of calibration curves, acceptance of the runs based on QC samples results

72. Chromatographic acceptance criteria, chromatogram integration

73. Sample reassays

74. Pharmacokinetic data from bioanalytical data

75. Statistics in the BE study

Dr. Manoj Karwa


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